Drilling Reamers Types And Applications
What Is The Benefit Of Reaming While Drilling
As it is required to drill more deep boreholes and deepwater wells, their costs, time and risks related to tripping long Drill String became major elements on the drilling design. In some deep wells, tripping time exceeds Drilling Bit life.
Four reasons for Drill String tripping: Drilling Bit change out, wiper trips, directional re-orientation, and casing runs. Fo There are few options to a casing run and worn Drilling Bit. Also Most directional re-orientation can be done from surface. So the reaming trip will be the main reason for performing a trip.
Reaming while drilling or well bore enlargement is a main process in drilling swelling formations, salt structures, and deviated wells, either for a casing run or to keep hole in gauge. The task of hole enlargement can be done in five ways, which is rely on required hole enlargement radius, formation makeup, and enlarged section depth:
- Separate reaming trip.
- Simultaneous reaming while drilling.
- Use of Drill String roller reamers (limited radius and constrained by casing ID).
- Use of overlarge Drilling Bit (limited by casing ID and used only for top-hole).
- Increase nozzle velocity to enlarge the hole hydraulically while drilling (limited to medium and soft formations).
Conclusion, There are cost advantages to reaming while drilling. The pilot hole offers good directional control while the enlarged hole from reaming creates the right conditions for running casing or completion equipment which relates to savings in time and cost.
Drilling Reamers Types
1) Underreamers Type
An drilling underreamers type is device designed to run in conjunction with a Drilling Bit. It has cutters which are able to be expanded or contracted by hydraulic or mechanical means and also are capable to ream or enlarge borehole below the casing. It can be used in hydrocarbon, geothermal or water wells.
Drilling underreamers type can be positioned either above the Drilling Bit or above a pilot assembly run inside the existing borehole. Numerous designs exist, in sizes varying from a couple of inches to 40".
Drilling Underreamers Components
Drilling underreamers type is composed of a body connected to the Drill String, and mobile parts ("arms" , "blocks" or "blades", typically 3 of them) retracted in the body during the descent and extended down hole for the reaming operation.
|Baker Conventional Underreamer|
Underreamer Type Applications
Underreaming is primarily used to allow a wider clearance for running and Casing Cementing Job correctly, either due to restrictions (swelling shales, tortuosity) or to be able to run a larger casing size. It is commonly used for offshore drilling operations, exploration wells, extended reach drilling or to increase the size of the production liner.
Underreamers type are also required for directional casing-while-drilling (or "drilling with casing") services, to allow the directional BHA to be retrieved through the casing, either at the end of drilling, or when a change of equipment is needed.
Underreamer Type had 3 main types:
- "Roller-cone" type underreamers, based on roller cone cutters technology, were often plagued by low reliability and limited bottom hole time
- "hinge-and-pin" PDC
- "block-type" PDC, commonly used today, suitable for reaming-while-drilling operations.
2) Drilling Roller Reamers Type
Roller reamers type are significantly used to improve performance with chronic stick-slip or whirl-induced borehole which are the main reason for limiting drilling in hard formation and extended reach wells. And also for conditioning the borehole.
Popular hole sizes for well bores range from 5" to 26" in diameter. Size of circulation path through the reamer body range from 1 1/2" to 3 1/4" in diameter. The body size on the necks beyond the area where the rollers are mounted typically range from 4 1/8" to 11" in diameter. This latter size will normally be the same size as the Drill Collar. Body links normally range from 4' to 8'.
Roller Reamer Type Components
Most roller-reamers type have three rollers equally spaced in a single transverse section. Such roller-reamers are referred to as "3-point reamer". When two sets of three rollers spaced apart longitudinally are used, the roller-reamer is called a "6-point reamer". However, large diameter roller-reamers may have more than three rollers in one transverse section. Let's get an example for the JA Roller Reamer Type.
- Reamer Pin – A large diameter pin. The reamer pin is prevented from rotating by the engagement of the end of the pin with slot in the body bearing block.
- Cross Pin – This drive-fit cross-pin arrangement safely retains the main reamer pin and reamer cutter while providing a simple, yet safe, locking device.
- Drive-Fit Body Bearing Blocks – Blocks properly position the cutter in the body to cut a full-gauge hole. Blocks are readily changeable by the drilling crew.
- Socket Head Cap Screws and Lock Washers – Included as secondary locking device for the reamer pins on each body for hole sizes 6 inches and larger.
3) Drilling RFID Reamers Type
|Drilling RFID Reamers Type|
An RFID reamer type Mechanism uses radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology to active the reamer. The electronically activated reamer provides increased flexibility for hole-enlargement-while-drilling (HEWD) operations. Weatherford’s RipTideTM RFID are inserted into the Drill Pipe
ID at surface level and carried down hole in the drilling fluid. An electronic reader on the tool’s controller interprets instructions embedded in the tags to unlock the controller, thereby permitting the cutter blocks to extend fully from the reamer body. A surface-level pressure gauge confirms that the tool is in the open position. RFID features enables operators to activate and deactivate the tool at any time while drilling or tripping. Specific benefits RFID technology offers include:
- Prevents activation of the cutter blocks during jarring operations, significantly reducing the risk of getting the reamer stuck in the hole and incurring nonproductive time as a result;
- Helps protect casing and the tool’s cutting structure from damage while cleaning the hole at full circulation and rotation;
- Permits running of multiple drilling reamers in tandem, all of which can be independently controlled.
4) Drilling Near-Bit Reamers Type
|Near-Bit Reamer Type|
Near Bit Reamer (NBR) can be used to drill over sized holes. It is designed to enlarge the hole while drilling. They have been used in both conventional Mud Motor and rotary steerable directional assembles.
Near-Bit Reamer Type Applications
- In high-cost deep wells, it will be economically wise to resolve a lot of costly well problems by using Near-Bit Reamer Type . These problems such as moving salts or shale, cuttings bed buildup, and excessive cake formation compromise hole quality.
- Also to enlarge hole size beyond the Drilling Bit diameter.
Normally, after drilling with Near-Bit Reamer Type, it is necessary to perform backreaming and it is more favorable to do it to the casing shoe. However, success in producing a larger annulus diameter which reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the need for backreaming has been achieved. This will save rig time and additional clearance to Run Following Casing strings.
5) Expandable Reamers Type
|Expandable Reamers Type|
Expandable reamers type were used to enhance efficiencies and decrease risk while drilling through formations that had a lot of problems, where wellbore stability is a main challenge.
The first concentric expandable reamers type were ball-activated. Once expanded, they could not be closed without stopping circulation. The reamer could be deactivated to allow circulation after reaming for better hole cleaning. The advantages of the concentric expandable reamer type over its mechanical-arm predecessors included the attainment of a larger borehole size that could accommodate larger Bottom Hole Assembly BHA components, flexibility in pilot bit selection, higher flow rates, and the ability to ream a previously drilled hole or to back ream a hole after drilling. The drawbacks to traditional expandable underreaming systems. Activation cannot be confirmed.
In addition, the positioning of the expandable reamers type at 100 to 300 ft above the Drilling Bit means that the equivalent portion of the hole, known as a rat hole, which won't be enlarged without a special trip that will requires 1 to 2 days which may cost from USD one million USD to 2 million USD.
Matching bit and reamer
Reamers and Drilling Bit should be matched for cutter size and aggressiveness (depth of cut) to balance loads more closely while drilling through homogeneous formations. For example, if the Drilling Bit out-drills the reamer, some inner formation stresses may have been released by the time the reamer starts drilling a new formation. In this situation, there is no Weight On Bit (WOB)
and the weight is transferred to the reamer, which may damage the drilling reamers cutters. In addition, with no Weight On Bit (WOB), lateral and whirl vibrations are able to damage the Bottom Hole Assembly BHA and rapidly compromise wellbore stability. Matching the Drilling Bit and Drilling Reamers is able to eliminate these risks.